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This publication describes the different soil types, their associated vegetation type, and what defines them. This includes the dominant vegetation and other plants that make up the unique character of this area.

The Noongar Boodja Ranger program established in 2014 is a new initiative to provide opportunities for unemployed Aborigines to get back out on country doing NRM work.

Three year program working with farmers in the Swan and Avon regions to maximise nutrient use efficiency.

Wheatbelt NRM’s overwhelmingly successful community feral control project works to benefit the EPBC listed Black-flanked Rock-wallaby of the Central Wheatbelt, Western Australia.

Helps explain to landholders how to control feral pests, like foxes and cats, using cage traps in native remnant bushland on their property.

A collation of local stories and photographs, containing information on local significant sites, flora and fauna, family groups, and the mysterious falling phenominum stones.

Chuditch the native cat was irritated. Someone had been hunting the native animals and he was sure he knew who the culprits were. Chuditch calls in all the bush animals to find out what can be done.

Haley and Stripes the Malleefowls are desperate to protect their mound, with its precious eggs inside, from Farmer Todd who plans on clearing the land for his sheep. How can a Malleefowl alert a farmer to its presence? Find out in this great little book.

In the hide of Duck Rocks amongst the silver-leafed Salmon gums, lay Fuzzy the Red-tailed phascogale in his hollow. He was having a lovely day before tragedy hit! A bushfire was heading his way. He has to escape but as he does, he runs into more trouble.

My name is Rania. I am a Red-tailed Phascogale. Sometimes it is hard being a phascogale as there are many things that threaten us. This is my story about survival.

In the small, quiet, peaceful, friendly Western Australia town of Pingrup there lived four farmers who all had one thing in common – RABBITS! Each farmer tries a different technique on trying to get rid of the rabbits. Some succeed, one fails.

Expected carbon revenues from sandalwood planting projects in the Central Wheatbelt are modest. They are unlikely to make such planting financially viable from the carbon revenue alone.

However, combined with returns from sales of sandalwood and other on-farm benefits of the plantings, revenue from carbon credits can make sandalwood planting a more valuable farm enterprise.

The Carbon Farming Awareness Project, funded by the Western Australian State Government Royalties for Regions (R4R) Program, saw the Department of Agriculture and Food WA (DAFWA) and five of the Western Australian Natural Resource Management (NRM) groups working with the community to show the profitability and productivity potential of carbon farming.

This guide is for land managers, farmers and communities interested in agroforestry-based revegetation options that provide both natural resource and production-based outcomes for the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia. The aim of this guide is to provide information, tips and tricks to successfully integrate agroforestry activities into existing Wheatbelt farming systems and advice on how to gain additional benefit for biodiversity outcomes from this form of on-farm revegetation.

This document presents the Five Year Targets for NRM aspirations for the Wheatbelt by the Aboriginal community. It has been developed from the Ballardong Noongar Boodjar Healthy Country – Healthy People document, a landmark statement of intent released in 2006. The Noongar are the local Aboriginal people of the Avon River Basin with, as their ancestors have described, a close affinity and relationship with their Country since the time of the Dreaming. Carriage of the Five Year Targets is contingent on funding through the Wheatbelt NRM Noongar Elders Advisory Group.

The Stormwater Reuse Project was designed to help local governments in the Wheatbelt reduce the pressure on reticulated water supplies during summer and meet the shortfalls in demand for non-potable water. It did this by improving the capture, storage and distribution of stormwater runoff in various town sties.

The 2015 survey was conducted in selected localities, covering most of the Wheatbelt NRM region. The respondents provided information on their top environmental concerns and what activities they did to help the environment. They also described their sources of information on environmental and natural resource issues and their membership in relevant environmental groups.

The 2015 Toodyay BioBlitz was the tenth BioBlitz held in the Wheatbelt and was jointly organised by Wheatbelt NRM and the Toodyay Naturalists’ Club. The collaborative, community-based, biological survey was held over 24 hours during the 12-13 September 2015 at four private properties on the Bindoon-Dewars Pool Road in the Shire of Toodyay, totalling almost 360 hectares of remnant vegetation and farmland. Surveys were also conducted in the adjacent Julimar State Forest.

This report documents a snap shot study of the biodiversity outcomes at 30 production and nonproduction based revegetation sites in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia.

The 30 study sites are located within the Avon River Basin and were grouped into five hubs located broadly around the town sites of Northam, Wongan Hills, Narembeen, Brookton and Mukinbudin.

Kaya (hello)! Noongar katadjin (knowledge) of boodjar (country) is a precious thing and a privilege to learn. This storybook offers a glimpse of the rich katadjin surrounding Boyagin Rock. This katadjin is passed on to new generations of Noongars (the Aboriginal people of south-west Australia), both in rural and metro areas, whose moort (family) connections to Boyagin are strong.

Author: Meckering Primary School

Teacher: Peta Newbound

School: Meckering Primary School, WA

This book was prepared by students from Meckering Primary School with support from the Invasive Animals CRC and Wheatbelt NRM. Noongar language has been incorporated into this book and those words are identified on each page where they are used.

This report reviews the current literature to provide a summary of the biodiversity benefi ts of agroforestry systems which could be utilised in the Western Australian Wheatbelt. Recommendations are then made for potential habitat manipulations appropriate for agroforestry systems to increase biodiversity outcomes. A new scoring system is also proposed, in which various agroforestry systems can be compared in terms of their potential benefi ts to biodiversity.

These five tutorials are designed to help you become familiar with the FLFT scenario tool and give you a further understanding what the tool can deliver. Before you start these tutorials you will need to make sure you have installed the FLFT scenario tool (the program) correctly, the program can be downloaded from

The Farming Landscapes for the Future software (FLFT) was developed to assist landowners in assessing the risks and benefits associated with land-use decisions. This software uses a database of predicted tree, crop and pasture production in the Avon River Basin under current and future predicted climates, and forecasts the economic implications of different scenarios.

The aim of this book is to promote awareness of the biology, ecology, threats and management of mammals that have occurred in the Avon region since European settlement. The Avon region is located within the central and eastern wheatbelt of south-western Australia. The Avon region comprises a total area of almost 120 square kilometres. Western Australia has 53 species of ‘declared threatened’ mammals, of which 11 have been found in the Avon region.

Key Messages
• Forage shrubs can provide the energy and protein to
‘grow’ sheep
• Planting forage shrubs is a great concept on country
which is underperforming
• The inter row needs to be maintained with high quality
feed sources such as annual legumes or quality grasses

My name is Kevan Davis. Gnammas were life-giving sources of water for my Noongar ancestors for many thousands of years. I want to tell you the story of the Derdibin gnamma, but first let me tell you a little bit about gnammas and Noongar life in general.

Total Water Cycle Management is an integral part of the Natural Resource Management of the town. With the probability of declining rainfall and increased temperatures due to climate change it is prudent to understand the water cycles in our town, maximise capture and minimise evaporation from current water storages by various means.

The On-Farm Soil Monitoring project is a joint project led by Wheatbelt NRM, the South West Catchments Council
and The University of Western Australia. It is designed to introduce landowners and farmers to the diversity of
organisms in their soils and to the use on-farm soil monitoring methods. This On-Farm Soil Monitoring Handbook
was developed as part of this project and explains procedures for assessing soil fauna (especially mites and
springtails) and the mycorrhizal fungi inside roots of crop and pasture plants as well as many Australian plant

13 farming families were able to protect 350 hectares of fragile Wodjil soils using 111,880 seedlings and 85 kilograms of locally collected native host seed. As part of this funding,
training sessions and workshops were also held and information resources developed.

Key Messages
• Consider maintaining good groundcover to reduce topsoil loss particularly
over the summer months. Cover crops offer a quick solution to maximise
• Brown manuring is a high return option in low rainfall areas; however
remember seasonal variation can influence the financial outcomes of farming
• Protect the soil; it is your main asset.
• Making trials locally relevant is important for community participation

Key Messages
• Passing on knowledge and skills is important to shape positive
attitudes towards the environment.
• Saltbush grows well in wet salt affected areas.
• Saltbush should be grazed regularly enough to stop them becoming
woody and unpalatable, but not damage the crown of the plant.
• Revegetation projects can have a greater impact if community
members are involved.

Key Messages
• Currently salt is encroaching on once productive cropping
land. The primary aim of this project was to reduce salt
• Saltbush provides an additional feed source for stock and
makes productive use of previously unproductive land

Casuarina obesa (Swamp sheoak) is generally promoted as a landcare option on saline farmland that also 

has potential as a commercial tree crop across the Avon region. The timber of swamp sheoak is suitable for 

cabinetry, furniture or firewood and recent trials indicate that can be used for CCA treated fence posts.

This native species can be planted on a range of soil types but is preferred on duplex sand over clay to heavy 

wet clays. As a seedling it is heavily browsed by stock, kangaroos and rabbits, although once more mature 

Key Messages
• Preliminary findings suggest that the adoption of a biological farming system may
have positive benefits for soil organic carbon storage when compared to a conventional
farming system. However, further research is required to verify these findings.
• Improving soil structure can improve plant growth through enhanced water-holding
capacity and water-use efficiency.
• To remain productive, soil fertility must be maintained. Farmers can enhance the fertility

Key Messages
• Pasture species need to be matched to the right soil type and rainfall for
optimal growth.
• It avoid’s disappointment and little economic return, new pastures should
first be trialled on a small scale to better understand their suitability.
• Learn through the experiences of others by becoming a member of a grower
group and/or by contacting field experts.

Gary and Janet Repacholi have been planting between 4,000 and 6,000 trees a year since the mid-1990s and saltbush since 2000. At first they fenced around the edges
of saline creeklines and planted eucalypts using the shire tree planter to thicken up some existing patches.
In 2009 they had read about oil mallees, a neighbour had planted some and then they talked with David McFall of the Upper Great Southern Oil Mallee Growers Association.

Key Messages
• Sandalwood seeds should be planted 2-3 cm below the
surface and approximately 0.4 m from every second host
• To compensate for poor tree establishment in-fills can be
• Native trees and shrubs provide the most ideal habitat for
• Many native tree species and shrubs provide natural food

Key Messages
• Trial new practices on a small scale first to ‘iron out’ any potential problems that
might be encountered.
• Permanent perennial pastures may compliment your existing mixed farming
enterprise in areas that are not suitable for cropping.
• Gatton panic is a vigorous perennial option on deep sandy soils.
• Seek assistance from specialists to make the adoption of a new practice easier.

Key Messages
• Alternative fertilisers are still highly speculative for broadacre
agriculture because little independent research has been conducted.
• Long term replicated trials are needed to better understand the
impact of alternative fertiliser on crop growth and performance.
• After a one year trial, the LCDC have found ‘conventional’ and
‘conventional’ + manure fertiliser options the best for growing

Rob had received funding in an earlier round from
Wheatbelt NRM and was keen to trial this on another
part of the farm to see how it went in comparison to
the earlier round site.
Rob saw the need to improve the land use on one of
the paddocks on his farm, because of the wind erosion
risk it had, as well as the reduction in production.

Key Messages
• Fodder shrub belts with pasture alleys show potential to integrate
perennial species into a cropping system
• Spring-sown sub tropical pastures established well on fragile Wodjil
• Next step is to trial pasture cropping into established perennial
pasture alleys

Getting involved
Avondale got involved in the CFoC funded project when
the Sandalwood Network was looking for a paddock to
get a project going. “They wanted to see how a system
worked together hosts and sandalwood growing in belts
with pastures in the alleys. We were happy to give it a go
as it also meant we could rejuvenate a site at Avondale”,
said Dina Barrett-Lennard.

Key Messages
• Select the right plant for the job.
• Exclude livestock during establishment phase.
• Assess the weed and pests at the site and take
appropriate control measures.

Key Messages
• Perennials are an option for stabilising wind prone landscapes all
year round.
• Conditions at time of planting have a direct impact on seedling
survival rates.
• A community focus can bring about greater change, then an activity
experienced alone.

Key Messages
• Spading is a useful farming practice to incorporate shallow clay in the top soil profile.
• Before altering the soil profile with on-farm clay pits, take the time to analyse the clay
and consider what other ameliorates may be a useful addition prior to incorporation.
• Electromagnetic (EM) and Gamma-radiometric (GR) are useful techniques to identify the
suitability of paddocks to different incorporation methods.
• Crop/pasture productivity can be greatly improved by reducing the non-wetting

Key Messages
• More frequently farmers are being faced with dry starts. More
needs to be known about the implications of seeding conditions,
seeder bar set up and application rates to improve crop yield
potential in these years.
• Seasonal variability and soil type has a significant impact
on crop yield results. There are also many other variables that
impact crop development and these areas need further research.

Key Messages
• Be careful not to over clear because in the long run it won’t improve
cropping efficiencies.
• Don’t let a landscape be lost to degradation. Seek advice and act
quickly to maintain good soil health.
• Oil mallee belts provide excellent wind breaks which give annual
pastures the opportunity to establish so they can be utilised by

Key Messages
• Funding can help you take on that large revegetation project you
have always wanted to do, but couldn’t finance.
• Integrating tree belts across a cropping paddock can protect crop
seedlings from furrow infill.
• Preparation is important when planting windbreaks across paddocks
to avoid complications with the cropping program.

Key Messages
• Taking the time to set the tree planter up correctly will greatly improve
the survival rate of the seedlings.
• If you can see that the land is starting to degrade, don’t wait. Do something
straight away.
• Biodiverse plantings have numerous environmental benefits and are a
valuable asset for your stock program.

Key Messages
• It is important to understand how water flows onto and off your property.
• Trees have multiple benefits. Consider plantings on your property to improve
the broader catchment
• Plant trees along recharge zones to stop the spread of salinity lower down
in the landscape.

Key Messages
• Revegetation within paddocks does not inhibit normal crop
and sheep production if planned carefully.
• Soil health is a key principle of sustainable farming.
• Landcare activities should be included in your farm plan so
that steps can be made to ensure they are implemented.

Key Messages
• The inversion of the water repellant top-soil and removing sub-soil
compaction could result in significant improvements in crop productivity.
• Cultivated soil should be rolled or packed prior to seeding to improve crop
• Send soil samples off for chemical analysis prior to any soil inversion as
lime and gypsum applications may be beneficial.
• Penetrometers are a great, inexpensive device that can measure soil
strength and indicate depth of compaction layers.

Key Messages
• Saltbush and Rhagodia shrubs fit in well with the existing farming
system, as they are drought-tolerant and adapted to a wide range
of soil types
• Grazing management is critical to ensure good shrub establishment
and persistence
• Mix of shrub species has increased the diversity of native animal species
within the paddock

Key Messages
• Order tree seedlings early to ensure optimal delivery time.
• Plant tree belts strategically to block strong winds
• Although hand planting is more labour intensive, trees can have greater survival
rates using this method, especially when conditions are less favourable.

Key Messages
• With new pasture varieties on the market you may like to see
how they compare to traditional sub-clover pastures by
trialling them on a small scale.
• Nurture your trial area in the first year of establishment to
ensure maximum growth and good seed set.
• Take the time to understand the agronomic package for new
annual pasture species as they can differ from traditional

Key Messages
• For best results develop a revegetation plan.
• Tree plantings are great for stabilising eroded areas and to
reduce the impact of salinity.
• Work together with your neighbours to consider tree plantings
at a catchment level.

Key Messages
• Planting trees improves the aesthetic appearance of salt
affected areas.
• Trees belts and blocks buffer farmland from salt blasting.
• Using a mixture of perennials increases the biodiversity of an

Key Messages
• The seedlings have being more successful where they have
been planted into the barley crop
• Good site preparation ensures greater plant survival
• Planting trees improves both the ascetics of the area and the
value of the land

Key Messages
• It is important to be vigilant during the post seeding period, to ensure insect
• Aim to get maximum seed set in the first year, this will set up the site for life; and
• Weed control is paramount.

Key Messages
• For optimal pasture growth use inoculants at planting time
• Annual pastures can offer multiple benefits as a break crop
• If conditions are favourable, serradella can stay green right
up to the beginning of summer.

Key Messages
• Planting trees is just part of the farming practice.
• Ensure that livestock cannot access the site.
• When planting the site consider the future ease of access across
the site.
• Planting trees does work in stopping the spread of salinity!

Colorado Farm, owned and operated by Graeme and Natalie Manton is located 17km north of Yealering in
the Corrigin Shire. Approximately 70 percent of the 2000ha property is sown to wheat, barley, canola and
lupins with the remaining 30 percent of the land used for grazing sheep.
Over the past decade a whole farm approach has been adopted to improve the profitability and sustainability
of the business. The following activities have been undertaken in order to achieve these goals:
• implemented a no-till seeding system,

Key Messages
• Landcare projects have greater impact if done at a catchment
• Saltland can be transformed into productive agricultural land.
• Becoming part of a grower group can help support your

Key Messages
• Serradellas are well suited to sandy soils and can grow good
biomass even in dry years;
• Aim for good seed set of serradella in year one to set your paddock
seed bank up for life;
• Learn from past experiences and try again and
• Brushwood can offer an alternative farm income if harvested.

Key Messages
• Sub-tropical perennial pastures showed good establishment on
sandy soils, on which subterranean clover and serradella failed,
and show potential for use in a pasture cropping system
• The sub-tropical perennial pastures provide summer/autumn
ground cover, protecting the soil from wind erosion and
increasing the grazing potential from unproductive paddocks
• It is critical to consider pasture variety, seeding method, weed
control and ground cover when establishing sub-tropical
perennial pastures

Key Messages
• Seeded pasture establishes better than seed that is spread.
• There are many salt land pasture options available to try.
• Slightly saline areas can be restored to provide a feed source to

Key Messages
• Even if something isn’t common practice, it is worth giving it a
go on a small scale.
• Sub-tropical grasses can provide out of season feed and protect
the soil from strong winds.
• Before planting a summer active crop ensure a good knockdown
spray is applied.

Key Messages
• Pastures can be a complimentary addition to areas planted to tree alleys by further
preventing wind erosion and providing summer grazing for livestock.
• Trial alternative approaches if current practices are not adequately suited to the land.
Though utilise the expertise of people ‘working in the field’ if your knowledge is
limited on the alternatives.
• If conditions are not favourable, hold off seeding until the following year to prevent
failed establishment.

Key Messages
• Plant serradella into clean paddocks to
reduce weed burdens in crop
• Choose small paddocks for bulking up
• Improve the harvesting of pods, remove
any rocks and sticks

Key Messages
• Unviable saltland has now become a valuable feed source for sheep.
• Zoning landscapes according to soil type and productivity can be
a helpful way to reassess land use and isolate areas that require
• Soil properties have a direct affect on the types of vegetation that
inhabit them.

The Butler family have always placed a high value on trees and try to plant a few trees every year as part of the farm’s strategic plan. However, it was not until the Wheatbelt NRM Soil Conservation Incentives Program came along that the family was able to plant trees at a greater scale.

Rod and Neil Carter initially became involved in the Soil Conservation Incentives Program following contact with the local Environment Officer and Whealtbelt Natural Resource Management Project Officer to discuss alternative management options for a highly wind eroded site.

Greg and Glenys Rutherford have been farming for much of their lives and have faced many challenges during this time. Planting trees on the property to protect their land asset is something they have done many times.

Alan Gelmi has a long running involvement in landcare initiatives and has always researched alternative avenues for production and sustainability of his farming land. Alan planted 100ha of mixed species fodder shrubs in May and August 2012 to a saline valley floor to assist with water erosion control and to provide a sustainable grazing system.

Horticultural scientist, Lisa Blanch and her family operate the Talbot Nursery in Beverley, a wholesale business specialising in the propagation of native plants. She decided to seek funding through the Soil Conservation Incentives Program because she wanted to trial a new technique for planting Santalum spicatum (Sandalwood).

Tony Williamson runs Morella Farms, a property between Merredin and Bruce Rock. Growing crops is his ‘bread and butter’. Like many farms in the wheatbelt however his soils are extremely variable. This means that some areas of the property are not suitable to cropping. Without help financially many of these areas would be either left unmanaged or cropped for the sake of it.

Active Corrigin Farm Improvement Group members, Harry and Aaron Gayfer, first learnt about the benefits of oil mallee belts and saltbush plantings on one of the group’s annual bus tours many years ago. Seeing firsthand how their neighbours had been integrating landcare projects drove a desire to do the same. Planting about 3,000 trees a year became part of normal farm practice for the Gayfer family. “We try to apply for funding when we can to help reduce the financial cost of revegetating degraded land”.

In 2011 David and Don Thomson commenced planting oil mallee seedlings in alleys through their Wheatbelt NRM Soil Conservation Incentives project. Over the two year project, 60,000 seedlings have been planted over a period of six days in alleys of four rows wide and 200 m apart. The alleys were an easy design orientation as they easily fit into the full cropping program run over the project area.

The Upper Great Southern Oil Mallee Growers Association initially contacted Wheatbelt NRM to assist them addressing the number one concern amongst farmers who have integrated mallees on their properties – edge effect. It was hoped that by breaking down a barrier to the continued adoption of mallees across the Wheatbelt and by building grower knowledge and confidence in managing edge effect would drive further investment into this agroforestry option.

Key Messages
• Clay incorporation using a spader and rotary hoe, markedly
improves crop yields supposed to offset discs. These methods
also make claying more affordable.
• Deep ripping prior to claying can significantly improve crop yields
by ameliorating physical soil constraints such as compaction.
• Soil testing is important before and after the claying process as
soil nutrition can be greatly when soil is mixing with the profile.
• Depending on depth to clay, alternative methods can be used

For many of you balancing your stocks nutritional requirements with crop production is a constant challenge, with many relying on grazing crop stubbles to carry stock through the autumn feed gap. There is a need to maintain the health of cropping paddocks while allowing the use of stubbles as stock feed; relying on stubbles alone is not the answer.

The incorporation of perennials into WA farming systems in the central wheatbelt has been varyingly successful, primarily due to the wide range in climatic conditions and soil fertility over the region. Growers are naturally interested in species that are performing well in other parts of WA, but at this stage the species which have demonstrated their resilience over time are the best options.

Pasture cropping is the sowing of winter cereal crops in rows between summer active perennial pastures as a means of integrating livestock and cropping enterprises to the benefit of both systems. The theory of pasture cropping is that livestock graze the pastures during summer and autumn, and the cereal crop during winter and early spring, then they are removed so the crop can regenerate and the grain harvested with minimal trade-off in yield.

When sowing a legume pasture, it is vital to remember the importance of treating the seed with an effective rhizobial inoculant. The use of inoculants results in greater root biomass and an increase in nodulation, which increases plant vigour and yield. Compared to the relatively small cost of inoculation, nodule failure is very expensive, as without root nodulation with effective rhizobia, the plants will deplete soil nitrogen for their growth requirements.

The opportunity for farmers in marginal areas to include perennials in their production systems is brightening, with new plant species belonging to the genus Rhagodia being trialled for their suitability as alternative perennial fodder shrubs in the lower rainfall agricultural regions of WA.

Both families are members of the Facey Group, which is the regional farmer run group working on research, information sharing, trials and experimentation aimed at improving farm practices to keep farms healthy and profitable and the region sustainable into the future.

Mario Varone and his family started farming in SE Hyden in 1957. His father, one of the many Italian POW’s of WW2, worked on a farm in the area between the years of 1943 and 1945. After the war ended, his host family nominated him and his eldest son to migrate in 1952. In 1957 they applied for land and by 1958 Mario, with his mother and elder brother, were able to join them. Together they cleared many virgin bush CP blocks. In 2002, after 45 years of farming under the partnership GA Varone & Co, the three brothers and their respective families split the farming operation.

Been planting since: 2001 Species planted: Biodiverse sandalwood mix including a range of Acacia species. Most recent tree planting project: In October 2010 Bruce and Bev received funding through the Wheatbelt NRM Soil Conservation Incentives Program to plant 40,000 sandalwood hosts over 2.5 years. So far 16,000 hosts have been planted with another 6,000 to 8,000 to be planted in 2012. The sandalwood nuts will be planted in every second row 1 to 3 years after the hosts depending on host growth rate. So far 80 – 95 % of the hosts have survived and are doing well.

Key messages
• Applying lime at rates appropriate to
soil pH is important for improving soil
health and improving productivity.
• When making decisions about
stocking rates, it is important for
farmers to consider the capability
of their land to avoid problems
associated with over-grazing.

If you have unproductive land, chances are Brookton farmer Andrew Pike knows what to do with it. For years, the fourth generation farmer had hundreds of hectares going to waste and uncovered, wind-eroded pockets of the farm were literally blowing away and taking potential profits with them.

Kit Leake and his family are primarily wheat farmers and have been involved in farming for four generations. Kit and his family have been involved with NRM activities over a long period of time and have planted in excess of 200,000 trees over the past 20 years. While aware of and engaged in environmental and NRM issues, the Leake family’s primary focus is on production. They have a long term interest in maintaining soil quality and have been applying lime since the 1970s in an effort to reverse soil acidity that occurs as a result of farming practices.

For over a decade now, Tom and Donna Henning have had an interest in tree crops – both for the benefits trees bring to the land and for the long term commercial potential.

Simon is a young second generation farmer. His parents came to the property in 1967 from Perth, because his father wanted to be a farmer and was allocated a block. While Simon does have interests in the family farm of Caringa, he has his own farm nearby, Anchorage.

Bob Huxley comes from a family that has been farming at Gabbin in the eastern central wheatbelt since 1922. Bob left the area in 1977 at the age of 27. He studied for his Bachelor of Social Work degree at Curtin University and worked in the field of addictions treatment for ten years.

The Hambly family purchased their property in 2005 and had no experience with oil mallee planting prior to that time. Upon arriving in Brookton they were dismayed at the land degradation that was being experienced due to severe wind events. After noticing oil mallees that had been planted on a neighbouring property, they were encouraged to contact David McFall of the Upper Great Southern Oil Mallee Association who assisted them designing the layout of the alleys and also provided assistance to ensure that the most suitable tree variety for their soil types was selected.

The Shire of Quairading and the local Noongar community were keen to enhance the natural environment and visitor Precinct with in “The Groves” in Quairading Nature Reserve, so they applied to Wheatbelt NRM in 2012 for a Small Community Grant.

Morbinning Hall Reserve is a 31 Ha reserve located within the Shire of Beverley, where there is less than 4% of remnant vegetation. Whilst the reserve has areas of intact bushland, it has a large rabbit population which has allowed an infestation of agricultural weeds to take hold in areas. It is a significant remnant in a cleared landscape. The Morbinning Catchment Group has been working over the past 20 years to establish bush corridors in the Morbinning region, and this reserve is an integral part of that network.

The Walbrininy Ngulla Aboriginal Corporation applied to Wheatbelt NRM in 2012 for Small Community Grant in order to identify birds and mammals in need, provide nesting boxes for wildlife, identify and survey bush tucker and medicinal plants in and around Deep Pool Reserve, and revegetate the area.

James Stokes has a property in Cunderdin adjacent to the Mortlock River, in an area where there are salinity issues. Cunderdin Rotary Club applied for a Small Community Grant in 2012 to revegetate the area of the property beside the waterway.

The Greening Challenge by Men of the Trees involved the planting of 35,000 seedlings in the East Beverley region of the Wheatbelt. This was funded by the Wheatbelt NRM Small Community Grant program. Five areas were chosen in the East Beverley region to connect fragmented remnant vegetation and stabilise soils along the waterways.

During 2011 an area of Salmon Gum woodland in Quairading Nature Reserve was found to be infested with slender ice plant, a succulent, annual herb which creates a mini saline environment around itself. This renders the area in which it grows inhospitable to other plant species. It produces plentiful seed, which remains viable for many years.

The Ngungali Aboriginal Corporation of York, applied to Wheatbelt NRM for a Small Community Grant in 2012 for their “River Guardians” project. There is an area of unallocated crown land between the Aboriginal Reserve 8567 and the Avon River.

The Wallatin Wildlife and Landcare Inc applied to Wheatbelt NRM for a Small Community Grant in 2012 in order to put together twelve sensor camera packs.

In 2012 the Toodyay Naturalists’ Club Inc applied to the Wheatbelt NRM’s Small Community Grant program for funds to draw engineering plans for a bird hide for installation on Red Banks Pool, near Lloyd’s Reserve, Avon River, Toodyay.

Millennium Kids is a not for profit organisation based in Western Australia, run by young people between 10-25 years of age, which promotes improving the environment by constructive action.

Mt Stirling or “Mulyeen” is located in the north east corner of the Quairading Shire. It is a granite rock with important environmental significance as it is a native habitat for the endangered Black Flanked Rock Wallaby.

The Men of the Trees had sets of an educational kit called “Treemendous Trees”, originally funded by the Public Education Endowment Trust. These kits are designed for use by Upper and Lower primary school children with stories and activities in line with the curriculum.

The Mt Marshall Native Plant Herbarium Group began in the early 1990s. Plants were collected, preserved, photographed data noted for each specimen. Each specimen was then identified to the best of their abilities while quite a few specimens were identified by the WA State Herbarium.

Located 5 kilometres west of the Northam Townsite, Burlong Pool is a semi-permanent
body of water and a site of significnce to both the Aboriginal and
non-Aboriginal people of Northam.

The Avon Natural Resource Management (NRM) Strategy provides a strategic context for investment in the natural resources and infrastructure of the Avon River Basin. It responds to concern that previous support for local initiatives and small-scale local projects was not delivering regional-scale change for NRM. The Avon NRM Strategy recognises the importance of people working and living with landscapes of the region and is directed towards enhancing their opportunities for the future and their capacity to manage natural resources.

Obtaining this funding has allowed both families to plant significant blocks of Tagasaste on sandplain that was going to continue to be degraded by wind erosion. Having the trees on both sides of the boundary provides further protection for the land, and is a win win for the neighbours.

While there has been significant local government participation in natural resource management (NRM) planning and program implementation in the Avon River Basin (ARB), the region’s large area and diverse character, with thirty-four local governments, creates significant operational and strategic challenges for local-regional cooperation. In looking to improve outcomes from working with local governments the Avon Catchment Council (ACC) recognises the need for a more comprehensive analysis to navigate the complex socioeconomic issues in this area.

This brochure outlines some aspects of treating acidic drain water with hydrated lime using an automated dosing unit and how much and how far downstream the dosing unit treated acidity in a creek that had been receiving acidic water.

Acidic saline water is common in drains used to manage shallow saline watertables in the Wheatbelt.

Tailor-made tree farming options for landholders designed to deliver environmental, economic and social benefits in rural areas, particularly for those in medium to lower rainfall areas.

The Species | Why plant Sandalwood | Protection of Soil from water erosion | Protecting soils from wind erosion | Improved soil structure and fertility | Reduction of Waterlogging and Salinity | Sandalwood hosts are all deep-rooted perennial | Where to plant trees | 

Whilst this report focuses on technical aspects associated with salinity trend analysis within the Avon River basin, information and recommendations presented provided an important context to broader discussions associated with resource condition monitoring and salinity risk assessment within the region.

This Sandalwood Industry Development Plan (IDP) is targeted at development of the industry based on Santalum spicatum, the native Western Australian sandalwood. As indicated in the table which follows, it was prepared under the direction of a working group, and with input from a range of other key stakeholders.

This report details the findings of community workshops and makes recommendations as to a way forward for establishing RBGs in the agricultural areas of Western Australia.

Using deep drainage in the WA Wheatbelt to manage shallow saline groundwater in broad valley floors can lead to discharge of acidic saline water that may require treatment of the acidity and removal of metals and minor elements before disposal or further use. The low pH and high concentrations of metals and other elements can pose environmental risks where water is discharged to creeks, floodways and lakes. The sustainable use of deep drains in managing dryland salinity will depend on meeting the pressing need to develop low-cost, practical, and effective options to treat acidity.

With many farmers currently cropping year after year, Brian was keen to trial pastures as a way of spelling and resting the land.


Integrating mallees into agricultural systems requires minimal intense management beyond the first two years after establishment.


Seedlings and planting represent the most costly stage of establishing a mallee planting, often representing up to 40% of the total establishment cost.


Weed control is the most crucial element to establishing any tree crop, including mallees.


In making mallees both a commercial and environmental option for your farm, it is important to thoroughly plan your planting. "How easily are mallees going to integrate into my current farming system?", "where do I want to plant them to achieve maximum benefit?", "what constraints do I have to overcome?" and "what options are available to me if my objectives change?".


Adequate preparation of your site for planting is essential for young seedlings to get established quickly and grow rapidly.

Background and Overview

The planting of a variety of mallee species provides the opportunity for a commercial tree crop to be established on farmland.

There are emerging commercial markets for wood and non-wood products that can be produced from mallees, and tree crops have already been established in WA based on the prospect of these markets developing further.

More than 80% of the topsoils sampled fall below the critical surface pHCaCl2 of 5.5 in the northern and southern wheatbelt study areas, with more in the south than the north. These results confirm soil acidity is a serious concern throughout the WA wheatbelt when considered in conjunction with the more intensive analysis of current soil pH throughout the Avon River Basin (2005–2008).

Agricultural soil surrounding the central Wheatbelt town of Narembeen was highlighted as a ‘soil acidity priority area’ based on the outcomes of the soil acidity profile data which was collected as part of the Avon River Basin Soil Acidity Project Report (2009).

These focus group workshops were conducted as part of the Wheatbelt NRM soil acidity project “Optimising Soil pH for Sustainable Farm Practices”, jointly delivered by the Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia and Precision SoilTech.

Applying agricultural lime is the most economical way of ameliorating low soil pH in broadscale agriculture. WA agriculture is well serviced by lime suppliers although pressures do exist on supplies which are in or near conservation areas and those impacted by urban development. Other pressures on the availability of lime for agricultural use include the increased demand by the mining, power and construction industries.

Based in Western Australia’s Wheatbelt Region, WWF-Australia's Woodland Watch began in 2000 to enhance the conservation of tall eucalypt woodlands on private lands in the Western Australian Wheatbelt.

This guide has been developed to present some of the approaches Wheatbelt farmers are taking to address soil health issues in the region.

This revegetation guide is for land managers, farmers, and communities interested in revegetation in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia.